Syed Abu A’ala Maududi (Born 3rd Rajab 1231 AH, 25th September 1903, at 11:30 AM) in Aurangabad, Hyderabad Deccan (present-day Maharashtra/Telangana, India). At an early age, he started going to the mosque with his father and attending gatherings of scholars. Being from a religious family, he continued to receive religious education from the very beginning. He memorized the surahs of the Qur’an while at the age of 9 he received basic education in grammar, Arabic, Persian, jurisprudence, hadith, and Urdu from his father.
At the age of 9, he entered the eighth grade in Madrasa Fuqaniya Aurangabad (Rashidiya) and at the age of 11, he passed the 10th class examination in 1914 (Maulvi). After that, he was sent to Darul Uloom Hyderabad for further education but due to his father’s illness he could not get further education in Darul Uloom, and in 1915 he moved to Bhopal to his elder brother Abu Muhammad. However, during this period, there was a keen interest in reading. He studied religious studies as well as scientific subjects and the English language. With the study came the taste for writing and for this reason he entered the world of journalism. His father passed away in 1920. Until the death of his father, he practically stayed in Bhopal with his family.
Maulana Maududi’s autobiography shows that he was associated with four newspapers in different languages. Among them is the three-day newspaper “Madina” in Bijnor (1918), the weekly newspaper “Taj” in Jabalpur (1919-1920), the weekly newspaper “Muslim” in Delhi (1920-1923), and the three-day newspaper “Al-Jami’ah” in Delhi (1925-1928). In the first two newspapers, he was with his brother Abul Khair and in the next two newspapers, he was associated as the editor. Al-Jami’ah is the newspaper that made Maulana Maududi famous and popular. Both “Muslim” and “Jami’ah” were the spokespersons of the “Jamiat Ulema-i-Hind” newspaper. But these were Islamic magazines beyond the sect.
During the same period, Maulana Maudoodi also continued his education and obtained certificates in Hadith, Fiqh, and Literature from Darul Uloom Fatehpur Delhi and Madrasa Alia Arabia Delhi. Later, at the end of 1928, Maulana Maududi, detached from journalism, took up the matter of writing and composing and returned from Delhi to Hyderabad Deccan.
In 1918, at the age of 15, the first scientific article was published in “Barq Ya Kabria” (Monthly Maarif “Editor: Syed Salman Nadvi).
At the age of 20 in 1924, the social article “Ethical Ethics” was published in the monthly Humayun (Editor: Mian Bashir Ahmed).
At the age of 21, a detailed article in two parts, “The Original Source of the Power of Islam,” was published in Al-Jami’ah (Editor: Abul-Ali Maududi).
In 1927, at the age of 24, a series of articles entitled “Islam and the Law of War” was published in Akhbar Al-Jami’ah in 3 or 4 installments. Which was published in book form under the name of “Al-Jihad Fi Al-Islam” by Darul Musnafin Azamgarh (edited by Syed Salman Nadvi). During this period he wrote most of the editorial notes of Al-Jami’ah newspaper and also translated 3, 4 articles and 3 books into Urdu.
During his stay in Hyderabad Deccan in the early years of this period, Maulana Maududi began to study and research history. He was 25 years old at the time. The political history of the Al-Seljuk Deccan, the relationship between Daulat Asifia and the British government was written during this period, while Ibn Khaldun translated the history as “Al-Safar-e-Rabaa” During this period he also wrote poetry under the pseudonym “Talib”. He wrote the textbook “دینیات(Theology)” on the initiative of the Education Department of the State of Hyderabad. Which has been made a part of the high school curriculum in the state.
Later, at the age of 30, he started publishing his thoughts and ideas by adopting the method of addressing Muslims directly with the launch of the magazine “Turjuman-ul-Quran”. Initially, his focus was on clarifying the ideas, values , and basic tenets of Islam. Later, instead of general articles, he introduced leading topics such as living topics of the time, which included the revival of the Indian nation, and in a short period of time, these topics started to make an impact in society. During the same period, He wrote books like, “حقوق الزوجین/Marriage Rights”, “سود/Interest”, “پردہ/Veil”, “مسئلہ جبر و قدر/The Issue of Coercion and Value”, “سلامی تہذیب اور اس کے اصول مبادی/Islamic Civilization and its Principles”, “اسلامی عبادات پر تحقیقی نظر/Research at Islamic Worship”, “تفہیمات/Understandings” and “ہمارے نظام تعلیم کی بنیادی خرابی/Fundamental Disorders of Our Education System”.
In 1937, Maulana Maududi married Mahmooda Begum at the age of 34. Mahmooda Begum belonged to the Bukhari family of Delhi. The leadership of the Jama Masjid in Delhi is with this family. Mahmooda Begum, who belonged to a learned and wealthy family, fully cooperated in the mission of Maulana Maududi’s life and also migrated twice with Maulana immediately after her marriage. Mehmooda Begum did not lose patience in the difficulties she faced while Maulana was imprisoned. Household affairs and children’s training were entrusted to Mahmooda Begum. Mahmooda Begum passed away in 2003 AD.
Maulana Maududi’s personality and thoughts began to gain status among the learned. In the same period, correspondence between Allama Dr. Iqbal and Maulana started through Chaudhry Niaz Muhammad. Chaudhry Niaz Mohammad wanted to set up an institute in the Pathankot area to conduct research, education, and training. In the light of these views of Chaudhry Niaz Mohammad, Allama Mohammad Iqbal suggested the name of Syed Abu Ali Maududi and persuaded him to move to Pathankot and take over the management of the institution. About three years after receiving the invitation, when all matters were finalized, Maulana Maududi moved to Pathankot with his family in the year 1938 and founded a scientific and research center called Darul Islam. Dar-ul-Islam could only last for a year. It was during this period that the process of thinking of forming an intellectual body of Muslims began with the consultation of comrades to guide the Muslims in India. So he stayed in Lahore from 1939 to 1942. Performed duties in the Department of Theology of Islamia College for one year free of cost.
It was at this time that the British government agreed to grant provincial autonomy to the people of India and elections were being held in the region. The Congress government had subjugated the Muslims. The Congress at that time was promoting the philosophy of the “United Nation” and many scholars were with the Congress but some scholars, including Maulana Maudoodi, were in favor of the “two-nation ideology”. During this period, Maulana wrote revolutionary and scholarly articles on the concept of separate Muslim nationality and the difference between Islamic and national government, which proved to be helpful in the movement for the establishment of Pakistan. These articles are now available in book form in two volumes under the title “تحریک آزادی ہند اور مسلمان/Tehreek-e-Azadi Hind and Muslim”.
Maulana Maududi’s ideas paved the way for a comprehensive and vibrant movement. An article on “ایک صالح جماعت کی ضرورت/The need for a righteous congregation” was also published in the Tarjuman-ul-Qur’an. After which he at a gathering on August 25th-26th 1941, he formed a new organization called Jamaat-e-Islami. The organization was established at the residence of Maulana Maudoodi in front of the mosque adjacent to Maulana Zafar Iqbal’s mansion in Islamia Park, Lahore, which was attended by 58 people from all over India. During this period he resided in Lahore. At the invitation of Allama Iqbal, he chose Lahore from South India to North India and then Lahore, the main center of North India, as the headquarters of his movement. Later, on the situation arising after the Second World War, it was decided to shift the Jamaat Center to Pathankot for better research and training.
The leaders of Jamaat-e-Islami moved to Pathankot. The first All India Gathering was held in Darul Islam Pathankot in 1945, which was attended by 800 people, while the second gathering was held in 1946 in Allahabad in which 2000 people participated. At the start of 1947, The political tussle between the Congress and the Muslim League had reached its peak and Pakistan was emerging. Meetings were held at 4 places in the early part of the year. Meetings were held in Darul Islam, for the workers of expected West Pakistan. Madras, Patna and Tonk for the workers of India. The next course of action of the Workers Movement of Pakistan and India was presented. During this period, books such as “دعوت اسلامی اور اس کا طریق کار/Islamic Call and Its Method”, “اسلام اور جاہلیت/Islam and Ignorance”, “شہادت حق/Testimony of Truth” and “تحریک اسلامی کی اخلاقی بنادیں/Moral Building of the Islamic Movement” were written. The writing of “Tafheem-ul-Quran” began in 1946.
Gurdaspur district became a disputed district during the Partition of India and was occupied by India. Pathankot was located in the same district. Due to expected attacks by Hindus and Sikhs, about 8000 Muslims from the surrounding areas took refuge in Dar us Salaam and were gradually deported to Pakistan in August. In these last moments of the migration of Pakistan, a worker was martyred during the commotion, and all the books, records, manuscripts, memoirs were left in the same place and Maulana Maududi finally migrated to Lahore after the departure of all the refugees.
The “اسلامی دستور کی تدوین/Compilation of the Islamic Constitution” was written and in the light of 22 points the demand for an Islamic system campaign was launched and soon after, the movement against the Qadianis began. The famous book “قادیانی مسئلہ/The Qadiani Problem” was written during this period, but during these movements, martial law was imposed in Lahore and the entire Majlis-e-Shura of Jamaat-e-Islami, including Maulana Maudoodi, was arrested. Maulana Maududi was sentenced to death for the “قادیانی مسئلہ/Qadiani issue”, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment following a national and international backlash. He was arrested for 2 years(1953-1955). Tafheem-ul-Quran was published in Volumes I and II, 1951 and 1955, respectively.
The Constituent Assembly drafted the first constitution of Pakistan in the light of Islamic principles in 1956. This was the result of the five-year struggle of Jamaat-e-Islami. In the light of the constitution, the first general elections were announced in the country in the light of which the Jamaat-e-Islami prepared its first manifesto. Unfortunately, one year later, in 1967, General Ayub Khan abolished the constitution by imposing martial law in the country and banned Jamaat-e-Islami.
He made a 3-month long trip called “سفر ارض القرآن/Journey to the Land of the Qur’an” and mapped the historical sites of Hejaz, Palestine, Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. He also visited Saudi Arabia for three consecutive years. This was the occasion when he became internationally known as a scholar. He traveled to Saudi Arabia at the invitation of King Saud. Shah Saud consulted on the establishment of an Islamic University in Medina and Maulana presented a detailed outline at the meeting. At the invitation of King Saud, a “Rabita-e-Alam-e-Islami” was formed on the occasion of Hajj. Maulana Maudoodi delivered a speech on the principle of “عدل اجتماعی حقیقت اور طریقہ کار/collective social reality and methodology” for the co-ordination of the Islamic world. He attended the meetings of the boards of Rabita-e-Alam-e-Islami and the University of Madinah while delivering speeches on “خطبات حرم/Haram sermons” for pilgrims and “ہد حاضر میں نوجوانوں کے فرائض/Duties of the youth in the present age” from the youth gathering. On the other hand, Tafheem-ul-Quran was published in Volumes III and IV, IV in 1962 and 1966, while literature was prepared in opposition to the socialist and communist movement. “اسلام اور جدید معاشی نظریات/Islam and Modern Economic Theories”, “سنت کی آئینی حیثیت/The Constitutional Status of the Sunnah” and “ختم نبوت/The End of Prophethood” were written during this period.
He was once again imprisoned for three months along with other clerics for not supporting the government on the “Eid moon”. This was his fourth and final arrest. I stayed in London for 6 months for kidney treatment. During this time you had two operations.
In April 1979, Maulana Maududi’s long-time kidney ailment worsened and by then he also had heart problems. He went to the United States for treatment and was hospitalized in Buffalo, New York, where his second son worked as a physician. Following a few surgical operations, he died on 22 September 1979, at the age of 75. His funeral was held in Buffalo, but he was buried in an unmarked grave at his residence in Ichhra, Lahore after a very large funeral procession through the city. Yusuf al-Qaradawi led the funeral prayer for him.